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Trop Anim Health Prod (2006) 38: 85–92

DOI 10.1007/s11250-006-4249-z


Radioimmunoassay of milk progesterone as a tool forfertility control in smallholder dairy farmsM. Shamsuddin · M.M.U. Bhuiyan · P.K. Chanda ·M.G.S. Alam · D. Galloway

Accepted: 19 August 2005C© Springer 2006

Abstract This study focused on the use of radioim-

munoassay of progesterone in milk for the diagnosis of

post-partum ovarian cyclicity and accurate detection

of oestrus and non-pregnancy in cows in the artificial

insemination (AI) programme in Bangladesh. In In-

vestigation 1, milk samples were collected on day 0

(day of AI), day 9–13 and day 21–24 from 444 milk-

ing cows of various breeds presented for the first post-

partum insemination by 413 farmers living at 182 vil-

lages/regions in Mymensingh District from 6 AI cen-

tres and sub-centres. Each cow was then examined three

times after each AI until it stopped returning to oestrus.

Sixty to 90 days after the last AI, the cows were exam-

ined per rectum to confirm the pregnancy. Milk pro-

gesterone data on day 21–24 contributed to a clear di-

agnosis with respect to non-pregnancy in 100% cows,

indicating a possible use of this progesterone assay for

identifying non-pregnant cows in AI programmes. In

Investigation 2, milk progesterone was monitored two

times in a month with a 10-day interval in 88 cows.

The samples were taken between 10 days after calving

and the first detected oestrus, followed by two more

M. Shamsuddin · M.M.U. Bhuiyan (�)· P.K. Chanda ·M.G.S. AlamDepartment of Surgery and Obstetrics, Faculty ofVeterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University,Mymensingh, Bangladeshe-mail: [emailprotected]

D. GallowayDepartment of Veterinary Science, University ofMelbourne, Werribee, Australia

samples 10 days apart. The proportion of cows accu-

rately detected in oestrus was 30%. Another 30% were

stated to be in oestrus when they were not (false pos-

itive) and 40% were not detected when they were in

oestrus (false negative). The mean intervals between

calving and oestrus and between calving luteal activity

were 40 to 362 days (median = 120, n = 82) and 34

to 398 (median = 111, n = 64) days, respectively. The

body condition scores at calving and at the initiation

of luteal activity influenced the interval between calv-

ing and luteal activity (p < 0.05). Cows suckled twice

daily initiated luteal activity earlier than their counter-

parts suckled several times daily (p < 0.05). Determi-

nation of progesterone in milk on day 21–24 is a good

means for detecting non-pregnant cows.

Keywords Cattle · Progesterone · Non-pregnancy

diagnosis · Radioimmunoassay · Smallholder dairy


AbbreviationsAIDA artificial insemination data analysis

BCS body condition score

RIA radioimmunoassay

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization

IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency


Many farms in Bangladesh are so small that only one

cow can be kept. Cows are tethered in a stable or


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86 Trop Anim Health Prod (2006) 38: 85–92

on available grazing land. They are used for draught

work as well as milk production and weaning is not

controlled. These management practices promote the

occurrence of post-partum anoestrus and limit be-

havioural manifestations of oestrus. Most Bos indicuscows show weak oestrus signs for a shorter duration

than Bos taurus cows. Detection of oestrus and of the re-

turn to oestrus after unsuccessful artificial insemination

(AI) is clearly difficult under such conditions and inef-

ficiencies have been documented (Shamsuddin, 1995).

Extended post-partum anoestrus, conception failure

and embryonic mortality were claimed to be a major

constraint limiting the reproductive efficiency in zebu

and crossbred cows (Alejandrino et al., 1999).

Traditionally, pregnancy diagnosis is not carried

out as part of the AI programmes. Veterinary services

are not always available. There is therefore is a need

to introduce other methods to determine the status

of cows with respect to cyclicity and pregnancy in

association with AI programmes. Analysis of three

milk, plasma or serum samples on day 0 (the day

of AI), day 10–12 and day 22–24 after AI has been

shown elsewhere to be an effective tool for monitoring

the efficiency of oestrus detection, cyclicity of the cow

and quality of AI services (Cai et al., 2001). Usually,

sampling of milk is more convenient than sampling

of plasma and serum. Milk progesterone level on the

day of AI retrospectively reflects accuracy of oestrus

detection (Nebel et al., 1987). There are reports show-

ing high accuracy of non-pregnancy diagnosis based

on milk progesterone concentrations on day 22–24

after AI in large commercial dairy farms (Kaul and

Prakash, 1994). However, information on the use of

such techniques in smallholder cattle farms is limited.

The aim of the present work was to use the radioim-

munoassay (RIA) of progesterone in milk as a diag-

nostic tool to determine the status of cows in AI pro-

grammes with respect to cyclicity and pregnancy. This

could lead to use of milk progesterone RIA as a tool

for identifying non-pregnant cows as a service to AI


Materials and methods

The investigation included 413 farmers living in 182

villages/regions in Mymensingh District, one of the 64

administrative units of Bangladesh. Mymensingh has a

medium-high type land with soil pH varying from 5.5

to 7.5 and is a part of Bangladesh usually unaffected

by floods. A 50-year meteorological data summary in-

dicated that the minimum and maximum temperatures

were between 11.7 and 25.6◦C and between 24.8 and

32.9◦C, respectively. The humidity and rainfall varied

from 67 to 87% and from 8 to 395 mm, respectively.

Crop production is the main source of livelihood. Most

people generate only a low income. The farmers’ land

totalled between 0 and 40 (median 0.6) hectares with 1–

70 (median 2.0) breedable cows. Dairying is mostly of

a subsistence type. Most of the cows were Bos indicusand others were crosses of Bos indicus with Holstein-

Friesian and a mixture of indigenous zebus. The cows

were milked 1 to 2 (median 1.0) times per day with their

calves at foot. Calves survived on residual milk after

the hand milking was completed. Controlled weaning

was not practised; therefore, the time of spontaneous

weaning was recorded. The cows were fed on rice straw,

cut-and-carry grass and milling by-product as concen-

trate (rice polish, wheat bran and various oil cakes) with

limited grazing on roadside and community land. The

field work took place between August 1995 and June


Investigation 1. Milk progesterone RIA in

diagnosing non-pregnancy and quality of AI


Milking cows presented for first post-partum insemi-

nation were included in this study. For analysis of pro-

gesterone concentration, milk samples were collected

in vials containing sodium azide tablets (8 mg; Merk,

Darmstadt, Germany) as preservative. The day 0 (day of

insemination) milk samples were collected by the AI

technician immediately after AI. Usually poor farm-

ers from the extensive farms bring the cows to the AI

centres, and on commercial farms or farms owned by

the rich farmers the AI operators visit the farms. If

AI operators were called to the farms, they arrived

within two hours. The research personnel picked up

the samples within 2 days after collection. The day

9–13 and day 21–24 milk samples were collected by

research personnel directly from the cow at a farm visit.

The milk samples were centrifuged and skimmed milk

was separated and stored at −20◦C until analysed. Pro-

gesterone concentration in milk was determined using

solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits supplied by

the FAO/IAEA, Vienna, Austria. The intra-assay coef-

ficient of variation (CV) with internal quality control


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Trop Anim Health Prod (2006) 38: 85–92 87

(IQC) samples varied from 8.0% to 15.6% (10 assays,

each with 10 replicates) and the inter-assay CVs were

16.6% and 18.4% for beginning and end IQC samples,

respectively (number of assays = 10). Between day 60

and day 90 after the last recorded AI, all cows were

examined per rectum for confirmation of pregnancy; a

milk sample was always collected immediately before

rectal palpation if the cow was not dry at that time. The

farmers did not pay for the progesterone testing and

the economic benefit obtained by the farmers was not


Investigation 2. Milk progesterone RIA in

monitoring of post-partum cyclicity and accuracy

of oestrus detection in cows

Eighty-eight cows on 58 farms were registered within

1 week after calving and relevant information with

regard to the farm and cattle was recorded. For indi-

vidual cows, information was collected on age, breed,

parity, last calving date, body weight and body condi-

tion score (BCS) at calving, occurrence of oestrus, and

the occurrence of any post-parturient disorders. Cows

that required major assistance during parturition and/or

that were diagnosed with periparturient disorders such

as retained placenta, puerperal metritis, post-partum

haemorrhage, prolapse of the genital tract or milk fever

were not included in the investigation. We requested the

farmers to report the date and signs of oestrus, but there

was no discussion between the project personnel and

farmers on the signs of oestrus and their relevance to


The research personnel collected milk samples from

individual cows twice a month, with a 10-day interval,

between 10 days post partum and the first report of

oestrus by the farmer. Two more samples were col-

lected, at 10 days’ interval, after the occurrence of

oestrus. During milk sampling, the research personnel

scored the cow for body condition (1–5 scales with 0.5

fractions), measured its body weight, asked the farmer

about the occurrence of oestrus and examined the cow

for the presence of any dry or fresh discharge adhering

to the perineum. The milk samples were processed as

in Investigation 1.

Analysis of the data

The data on milk progesterone concentrations at day 0,

day 9–13 and day 21–24 were compared with the results

of per rectum pregnancy diagnosis. Artificial insemi-

nation data application (AIDA, International Atomic

Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria) was used to record

and analyse the data. Progesterone data based on two

samples (day 0 and day 9–13) were used to examine the

efficiency of oestrus detection. Milk progesterone con-

centration on the day of AI was used to determine the

proportions of AI performed in the luteal phase of the

cow. In Investigation 2, the following model (Goodger

et al., 2001) was used to analyse the data:

INT = μ + b1x1 + b2x2 + b3x3 + b4x4 + b5x5

+ b6x6 + b7x7 + b8x8 + b9x9 + e

where: INT = log of interval between calving and the

first detected luteal activity (days); μ = general mean;

x1 = cattle rearing system (extensive vs intensive); x2

= purpose of rearing cows (dairy vs dairy + draught);

x3 = feeding system (concentrate fed vs no concentrate

fed); x4 = breed of cow (crossbred Friesian, crossbred

Sahiwal, local); x5 = BW at calving (group 1, ≤200 kg;

group 2, 201–250 kg; group 3, 251–300 kg; group 4,

≥301 kg); x6 = BCS at calving (group 1, 1.0–2.0; group

2, 2.5; group 3, 3.0; group 4, 3.5–5.0); x7 = BW at the

first detected luteal activity (group 1, ≤200 kg; group 2,

201–250 kg; group 3, 251–300 kg; group 4, ≥301 kg);

x8 = BCS at the first detected luteal activity (groups 1,

1.0–2.0; group 2, 2.5; group 3, 3.0; group 4 3.5–5.0); x9

= frequency of suckling (once or twice daily vs several

times a day); e = error term.

The data were log-transformed to near normality.

ANOVA was used to test the effect of the accuracy of

oestrus detection on the post-partum interval to oestrus

(false positive cases were deleted). Unless otherwise

indicated, the data are presented as median and range

owing to high individual variations. Only the factors

that tended (p = 0.10) to or significantly (p < 0.05)

influenced the dependent variables are presented in the

figure and tables.


Investigation 1. Milk progesterone RIA in

diagnosing non-pregnancy and quality of AI


The cows studied were 4–18 (median 7.4) years old,

their parity ranged from 1 to 12 (median 2), body


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88 Trop Anim Health Prod (2006) 38: 85–92

Table 1 Three-sample milk progesterone data with respect to pregnancy results

Day 0 Day Day Number of

(day of AI) 9–13 21–24 cases (%) Rectal palpation results; interpretation

Lowa Highb High 202 (56.1) Pregnant

Low Intermediatec High 7 (1.9) Pregnant; RIA problem, biological variations

Low High Low 75 (20.8) Non-pregnant; fertilization failure, early embryonic

death, post-AI anoestrus

Low Intermediate Low 7 (1.9) Non-pregnant; fertilization failure, short luteal phase,

RIA problem, biological variation

Intermediate/high Low/intermediate/


Low 6 (1.7) Non-pregnant; AI at incorrect time, post-AI anoestrus

Clear interpretation 297 (82.5)

Low High High 27 (7.5) Non-pregnant; late embryonic death (>16 days) luteal

cyst, persistent corpus luteum (CL)

High High High 2 (0.6) Pregnant; AI on pregnant animal

Low Intermediate High 4 (1.1) Non-pregnant; RIA problem, biological variation, late

embryonic death, persistent CL

Low High Intermediate 20 (5.6) Non-pregnant; fertilization failure, late embryonic death

RIA problem, biological variation

Low Low Intermediate 2 (0.6) Non-pregnant; AI in anoestrous cow, RIA problem

Intermediate/high Low/intermediate/




8 (2.2) Non-pregnant; AI at incorrect time, luteal cyst,

persistent CL

Total number of observations 360

aLow, <1.0 nmol/L; bHigh, ≥3.0 nmol/L; cIntermediate, 1.0–3.0 nmol/L

weight was from 103 to 480 (median 196) kg, BCS

was from 1 to 5 (median 3) and milk production var-

ied from 0.3 to 16.0 (median 2) litres per day. The

interpretation of progesterone data based on three sam-

ples (day 0, day 9–13 and day 21–24) with respect to

pregnancy results is shown in Table 1. Milk proges-

terone data gave a clear interpretation in 82.5% cows

(n = 360) about their pregnancy status when compar-

ison was made with per rectum pregnancy diagnosis

at day 60–90. None of the 75 cows with a proges-

terone profile of low (<1.0 nmol/L), high (≥3 nmol/L)

and low on day 0, day 9–13 and day 21–24, respec-

tively, were found pregnant at rectal palpation. Twenty-

seven cows (7.5%) had a progesterone profile of low

high and high on day 0, day 9–13 and day 21–24, re-

spectively, but were not pregnant at rectal examina-

tion. Two inseminations were made in pregnant cows.

All cows confirmed pregnant at rectal palpation had

≥3 nmol/L progesterone in skimmed milk at the day

of pregnancy diagnosis. Cows with milk progesterone

level <3 nmol/L were always non-pregnant. Eighty-

one percent of cows (n = 478; including all services)

had a progesterone profile of low and high on day

0 and day 9–13, respectively, indicating AI not per-

formed at luteal phase nor during ovarian acyclicity

(Table 2). Fifty-nine cows (12.3%) received AI at an in-

correct time as evident from a deviant progesterone pro-

file. Twenty-seven of 505 services (5.3%) were made

when the cow had a high to intermediate level of milk


Investigation 2. Milk progesterone RIA in

monitoring of post-partum cyclicity and accuracy

of oestrus detection in cows

The cows studied were 3–15 (median = 6.0) years old

and of parities 1–8 (median = 3.0). At calving they

weighed 160–456 (median 270) kg and BCS was 1.5–

3.5 (median 2.5). The intervals from calving to the first

detected oestrus and to the initiation of luteal activity

were 40–362 (median 115; n = 82) and 34–398 (me-

dian 108, n = 64) days, respectively. Farmers missed

detecting an oestrus (false negative) on 1–3 (median

1.0) occasions post partum. The proportion of cows

accurately detected in oestrus was 30%. Another 30%

were stated to be in oestrus when they were not (false

positive) and 40% were not detected when they were in

oestrus (indicated by one to three progesterone peaks

(≥3 nmol/L) before the cow was identified as being in



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Trop Anim Health Prod (2006) 38: 85–92 89

Table 2 Milk progesteroneprofiles of the artificiallyinseminated cows on the dayof service and on day 9–13with respect to the accuracyof oestrus detection

Day 0 Day Number of

(day of AI) 9–13 cases (%) Interpretation

Lowa Highb 387 (81.0) Progesterone concentration within negative

range on day 0 and within positive range on

day 9–13 indicates an ovulatory cycle –

accurate oestrus detection

Low Low 47 (9.8) Progesterone concentration within negative

range on both days indicates anoestrus,

anovulation, or short luteal phase –

inaccurate oestrus detection

High High 6 (1.3) Progesterone concentration within positive

range on both days indicates AI in pregnant

animals or in animals with luteal cyst –

inaccurate oestrus detection

High Low 6 (1.3) Progesterone concentration within positive

range on day 0 and within negative range

on day 9–13 indicates that AI was

performed during luteal phase – inaccurate

oestrus detection

Total occurrence 478

Total inaccurate oestrus detection 59 (12.3)

aLow =< 1.0 nmol/L;bHigh =≥ 3.0 nmol/LThirty two services (6.7%)were made in cows with anintermediate level of milkprogesterone(1.0–3.0 nmol/L) on day 0,on day 9–13 or on bothoccasions

Fig. 1 Effect of body condition (BCS) at calving (A) and at first luteal phase (B) on the post-partum interval to the initiation of lutealactivity

The post-partum intervals to the initiation of first

luteal activity were examined in these cows. Those with

BCS 3.5 or more at calving needed fewer days to initiate

luteal activity than their counterparts having BCS 3.0

or less (Figure 1A, B; p < 0.05). Cows suckled once

or twice daily required fewer days (median 95, range

34–398; n = 28) than the cows suckled several times a

day (median 127, range 35–279; n = 36) (p < 0.05).


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90 Trop Anim Health Prod (2006) 38: 85–92

The median interval to first post partum oestrus was

prolonged by 33.5 days due to farmers’ inability to

detect the oestrous cows (p < 0.05). The age of the

cows and their parities did not influence the initiation

of luteal activity (p > 0.50). The effects of body weight

at calving, purpose of rearing cows (dairy vs dairy +draught) and breed of cow on the initiation of luteal

activity were not significant (p > 0.10)


Milk progesterone data based on three samples (day 0,

day 9–13 and day 21–24) helped in making a clear de-

cision about the pregnancy in 82.5% cows. If only the

non-pregnancy diagnosis is concerned, milk proges-

terone concentration on day 21–24 (day of oestrus =day 0) will give the same results without compromising

the accuracy. Milk progesterone concentration on day

0 and day 9–13 together not only identified inaccurate

oestrus detection but also gave a clear indication of the

cyclical status of the animals. Progesterone concentra-

tion on day 0 can only indicate whether or not AI was

done in a cow with functional luteal tissues in the ovary.

It was clear that cows with less than 3 nmol/L in milk

on day 21–24 were always non-pregnant. Where vet-

erinary services are not available or are too expensive,

milk progesterone concentrations on day 21–24 can be

used to interpret pregnancy results with 100% accuracy

of non-pregnancy diagnosis (Kaul and Prakash, 1994).

It is possible for a RIA laboratory to apply this approach

easily in smallholder dairy farms where heat is not de-

tected by any aids. Farmers’ Knowledge of the non-

pregnancy status of cows by 21–24 days would defi-

nitely help detecting the cows’ return to estrus and en-

able them to be inseminated by 42 days without losing

time until confirmation of pregnancy. Consequently, the

interval from calving to conception would decrease, re-

sulting in economic benefit to the farms even though

the farmer had to wait for another cycle length to get the

cow inseminated. This problem could be minimized if

the non-pregnancy status of cows could be determined

by 19 days and the farmer could be informed about

the result of AI immediately after RIA, resulting in de-

tection of heat by careful observation followed by AI

without wasting time for another cycle. However, at

the moment, owing to transportation and communica-

tion problems, it would take at least 3–4 days for the

milk sample to be analysed and the result sent back

to the farmer, resulting in waiting for another cycle


Failure to detect oestrus (false negative) and false

determination of oestrus (false positive) are common

problems in AI of cows in intensive farming (Smith,

1986; Dawuda et al., 1989; Johnson et al., 1992). False

negative and false–positive categories of oestrus detec-

tion have been found by others to be as high as 30–

50% (Rounsaville et al., 1979; Dawuda et al., 1989;

Johnson et al., 1992) and 17–30% (Smith, 1986), re-

spectively. This can be explained by the fact that in

intensive farming or in small holdings having one cow,

oestrus cannot be detected by primary signs such as

‘standing to be mounted’ as the cows are always tied

up. However, the main weakness affecting the accu-

racy of oestrus detection is that farmers are missing

or misinterpreting or are unaware of secondary signs

of oestrus such as mucus discharge and swollen vulva.

Nevertheless, the false positive oestrus detection was

lower in Investigation 1 (12%) than that in Investigation

2 (30%). In Investigation 1, the cows were recorded at

the AI centres. Firstly, this means that farmers made

a positive decision about the oestrus of the cow. Sec-

ondly, the registration of cows by the AI technicians in

Investigation 1 raises the question whether they made

any selection in favour of good oestrus signs to prove

their good performance. In Investigation 2, to avoid our

frequent visits, some farmers might have made inten-

tional false reports about oestrus. Because cows in the

false-negative category are not inseminated and cows

in the false-positive category are unlikely to become

pregnant in that cycle, resulting in increased calving to

conception interval.

Cows with good body condition at calving and there-

after initiate post-partum cyclicity earlier than those

with poor body condition. This is in agreement with

earlier findings (Bolanos et al., 1998) and indicates the

importance of good nutritional management of preg-

nant cows to cover the negative energy balance due

to growth of the fetus and subsequent milk production

(Claycomb et al., 1996). A positive effect of a high

nutrition plan with restricted suckling on reducing the

calving to conception interval was described by Das

and colleagues (1999). Early initiation of postpartum

cyclicity will reduce the interval from calving to first

service and to conception.

The adverse effects of the duration and frequency

of suckling on the initiation of post-partum cyclicity

as indicated by our results are in accordance with


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Trop Anim Health Prod (2006) 38: 85–92 91

other reports (Williams, 1990). In a different study,

we found an increased interval from calving to first

service and to conception due to frequent suckling

(Shamsuddin et al., 2001). Controlled suckling for a

restricted period favours post-partum reproduction in

cows (Msanga and Bryant, 2003). The results of the

present investigations do not clarify whether prolonged

suckling lengthens the onset of post-partum ovarian

activity or wheather the suckling continues because

the cows do not dry off since they are not pregnant.

However, in commercial dairy farming, controlled

weaning should be practised to identify cows with an

inherent tendency to remain acyclic irrespective of

suckling and nutrition management.

It appears that determination of progesterone in milk

on day 21–24 is a good means of making decisions on

pregnancy by diagnosing the non-pregnant state with

high accuracy. Farmers should have better training in

oestrus detection. The nutritional condition of the cow

at calving and duration and frequency of suckling are,

among others, important determinants of the intervals

to the initiation of ovarian activity.


The project was funded by the joint FAO/IAEA divi-

sion, Vienna, Austria (research contract no. 8566/RB).

We thank the Department of Livestock Services of

Bangladesh for giving us access to its AI activities for

the completion of this study.


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Williams, G.L., 1990. Suckling as a regulator of post-partumrebreeding in cattle: a review. Journal of Animal Science,68, 831–852


(PDF) Radioimmunoassay of milk progesterone as a tool for fertility control in smallholder dairy farms - DOKUMEN.TIPS (8)

92 Trop Anim Health Prod (2006) 38: 85–92

Radioimmunodosage de la progesterone du lait atitre d’outil de controle de la fecondite dans des fer-mes laitieres de petit* cultivateurs

Resume – La presente etude s’est concentree sur l’usage d’unradioimmunodosage de la progesterone dans le lait pour le di-agnostic de la cyclicite ovarienne post-partum, la precision de ladetection de l’œstrus et la non-gravidite chez des vaches dans lecadre d’un programme d’insemination artificielle (AI) entreprisau Bangladesh. Dans l’investigation 1, des echantillons de lait ontete recueillis au Jour 0 (jour de l’AI), aux Jours 9 a 13 et aux Jours21 a 24 de 444 vaches allaitantes de diverses races presentees pourla premiere insemination post partum par 413 cultivateurs vivantdans 182 villages/regions du district de Mymensingh a 6 centreset sous-centres de AI. Chaque vache a ensuite ete examinee troisfois apres chaque AI jusqu’a ce qu’elle cesse d’être fecondable.Soixante a 90 jours apres le dernier AI, les vaches ont ete ex-aminees par le rectum pour confirmer la gravidite. Les donneesde la progesterone du lait aux Jours 21 a 24 ont contribue a undiagnostic irrefutable de non-gravidite chez 100% des vaches,indiquant la possibilite d’utiliser ce dosage de la progesteronepour l’identification des vaches non gravides dans le cadre desprogrammes AI. Dans l’investigation 2, la progesterone du lait aete controlee deux fois en un mois a 10 jours d’intervalle chez 88vaches. Les echantillons ont ete preleves entre 10 jours apres levêlage et le premier oestrus detecte, suivis de deux echantillonsde plus a 10 jours d’intervalle. La proportion des vaches detecteesavec precision en oestrus a ete de 30%. Une autre proportion de30% des vaches a ete declaree être en oestrus alors qu’elles nel’etaient pas (faux positifs) et une proportion de 40% des vachesn’ont pas ete detectees alors qu’elles etaient en oestrus (fauxnegatifs). Les intervalles entre le velage et l’œstrus et l’activiteluteale ont ete de 40 a 362 (valeur mediane = 120, n = 82)et 34 a 398 (valeur mediane = 111, n = 64) jours, respective-ment. Les scores de la condition corporelle (BCS) au velage etau commencement de l’activite luteale ont influence l’intervalleentre le velage et l’activite luteale (p < 0.05). Les vaches teteesdeux fois par jour ont commence une activite luteale plus tot queleurs hom*ologues tetees plusieurs fois par jour (p < 0.05). Ladetermination de la progesterone dans le lait aux Jours 21 a 24est un bon moyen de detection des vaches non gravides.

Radioinmunoanalisis de progesterona en lechecomo herramienta para el control de la fertilidaden pequenas granjas lecheras

Resumen – El presente estudio se centro en la utilizacion de ra-dioinmunoanalisis de progesterona en leche para el diagnosticode la ciclicidad ovarica post-parto, la precision de la detecciondel estro y la ausencia de prenez en vacas en el programa de in-seminacion artificial (IA) de Bangladesh. En la investigacion 1,se recogieron muestras de leche en el dıa 0 (dıa de IA), dıas 9–13y dıas 21–24 a partir de 444 vacas de ordeno de diferentes razaspresentadas para la primera inseminacion post-parto a 6 centrosy subcentros de IA, por 413 granjeros que vivıan en 182 pueb-los/regiones del Distrito de Mymensingh. Cada vaca era luegoexaminada tres veces despues de cada IA hasta que paraba deregresar al estro. Se examino el recto de las vacas, a los 60–90dıas despues de la ultima IA, para confirmar el embarazo. Losdatos de la progesterona en leche en los dıas 21–24 contribuıana un claro diagnostico con respecto a la no prenez en el 100%de las vacas, indicando con ello una posible utilizacion de esteanalisis de progesterona para identificar a las vacas no prenadasen los programas de IA. En la investigacion 2, se monitorizola progesterona de la leche, dos veces al mes con un intervalode 10 dıas, en 88 vacas. Las muestras fueron tomadas entre 10dıas despues del parto y el primer estro detectado, seguidas pordos muestras mas con 10 dıas de diferencia. La proporcion devacas a las que se les detecto con precision el estro fue de un30%. Otro 30% fue declarado estar en estro cuando en realidadno estaban (falso positivo) y a un 40% no se les detecto cuandose hallaban en estro (falso negativo). Los intervalos entre partosy estros, y la actividad luteınica fueron de 40 a 362 (media =120, n = 82) y 34 a 398 (media = 111, n = 64) dıas, respec-tivamente. La puntuacion de la condicion corporal (PCC) en elparto y al inicio de la actividad luteınica influıa en el intervalo en-tre partos y actividad luteınica (p < 0.05). Las vacas que dabande mamar dos veces al dıa iniciaban la actividad luteınica maspronto que sus companeras que daban de mamar varias veces aldıa (p < 0.05). La determinacion de la progesterona en la lecheen los dıas 21–24 es un buen medio para detectar a las vacas noprenadas.


(PDF) Radioimmunoassay of milk progesterone as a tool for fertility control in smallholder dairy farms - DOKUMEN.TIPS (2024)


What is the milk progesterone test for cows? ›

Uses of Milk Progesterone Analysis

If the herdsperson is suspicious that a cow is in heat, progesterone concentrations can be used to verify if indeed the cow is in or near heat. Milk progesterone testing may be useful in verifying estrus if: The cow was observed in heat, but was previously diagnosed pregnant.

How do you increase progesterone in cows? ›

An injection of 500 mg progesterone in lactating cows increases blood concentrations of this hormone more than 1 ng mL-1 and lasts 48 to 72 h (Flores et al, 2013).

What is the primary source of progesterone in a cow that is at 100 days of gestation? ›

The CL appears to be the most important source of progesterone throughout bovine pregnancy. The CL from a previous cycle contains measurable progesterone for two or three days after estrus. Progestin in the CL and ovarian vein blood declines rapidly during proestrus from maximum levels observed 14–16 days post-estrus.

How much progesterone is enough? ›

For oral dosage form (capsules): For prevention of thickening of the lining of the uterus (endometrial hyperplasia): Adults—200 milligrams (mg) per day, taken as a single dose at bedtime, for 12 continuous days per 28-day menstrual cycle. Children—Use is not recommended.

What is the best progesterone level for breeding? ›

To assure that ovulation is complete and the progesterone level is high enough to maintain a pregnancy, delay either the final or the surgical insemination until the progesterone level has reached or exceeded 20 ng/ml. After ovulation and breeding are completed, the progesterone level will continue to rise.

Why can't you eat with progesterone? ›

It is completely safe to take it in this way. Utrogestan is a natural sedative so can sometimes cause drowsiness. It is therefore recommended you take it at bedtime. It is best to take Utrogestan on an empty stomach because eating food can actually increase its absorption (though this is not detrimental).

What is the milk test for cows? ›

Milk samples provide an efficient approach to regular disease and animal health screening. They are easy to collect and can be used to accurately identify many diseases, assess somatic cell counts and confirm pregnancy.

What is normal progesterone level in cows? ›

Repeat breeding cows were found to have lower levels of progesterone level (1.17 ± 0.39 ng/ml) than that of fertile cows (3.07 ± 0.33 ng/ml).

What is the milk test for pregnancy in cows? ›

The Alertys Milk Pregnancy Test confirms pregnancy status from 28 days post breeding in cows and goats, from 60 days post breeding in sheep, from 29 days post breeding in water buffaloes and from 60 days post calving in cows. This enables producers to identify open animals to ensure re-breeding in a timely manner.

What is the function of progesterone in dairy cows? ›

Progesterone (P4) from the corpus luteum is critical for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy and plays a major role in regulating endometrial secretions essential for stimulating and mediating changes in conceptus growth and differentiation throughout early pregnancy in ruminants.


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